Consumption of dairy products in relation to body weight and composition
Three recent meta-analyses are available that address the role of dairy products with respect to body weight (BW) and/or body composition (BC) in adults. The meta-analyses of Abargouei et al1 (14 RCTs ; 883 adults) and Chen et al2 (29 RCTs ; 2101 adults) are partly overlapping with regard to the selection of studies, with the first only selecting studies with BW as primary outcome, whereas the latter also added studies with BW as secondary parameter.
Diets helping to maintain a healthy blood pressure
The DASH eating plan has been developed in the US as an approach to reduce elevated blood pressure through appropriate dietary choices (DASH = Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension). Randomized trials have shown which food categories help in establishing and maintaining a healthy blood pressure.
Dairy products are part of food-based dietary guidelines around the globe
Food-based dietary guidelines from all over the world recommend consuming dairy on a daily basis as part of a healthy diet. From Europe and Asia through to Africa and the Americas, milk and milk products are perceived as an important source of nutrients to comply with the dietary recommendations for all stages of life.
The history of dairy
Crop farmers and cattle farmers first began to keep cows about 10,000 years ago. They discovered that cows can convert grass, which is indigestible for humans, into the valuable food product milk. This was the perfect solution for people in areas where no other crops could grow.
Lactose intolerance: Prevalence and dietary strategies
Lactose intolerance refers to the body’s decreased ability to digest the milk sugar lactose as a result of low lactase enzyme levels. Lactose intolerance does not mean that dairy products should be avoided. Indeed, there are dietary strategies that effectively alleviate symptoms, while enabling the daily consumption of milk and milk products.
Milk and bone health
Genetics are a major determinant for strong bones and account for 60 to 80% of the variation in peak bone mass, i.e. the maximum bone density. Nutrition and exercise also play important roles in the development of the bones while growing (children) and in the bone tissue maintenance phase for adults and elderly people. Health authorities agree that calcium, protein and phosphorus from, among others, milk support the development and maintenance of the bones mass.
Dairy and bone physiology
Bone is a composite material made up principally of proteins and calcium phosphate. Other bone components include sodium, magnesium, potassium and zinc. Getting just the right mix of nutrients is important for maintaining strong bones. In addition to calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus, magnesium and protein are all important for keeping our bones healthy. All of the aforementioned mineral elements provide bones with their strength and rigidity.
Can people with lactose intolerance consume dairy products?
Many Europeans and some populations in Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia can digest lactose throughout life thanks to the presence of the enzyme lactase in the small intestine. This is called lactase persistence. Most people who cannot tolerate lactose can digest about 12 grams of lactose per day. This is equal to a large glass (250 ml) of milk. Yoghurt contains less lactose and semi-hard cheeses hardly contain any lactose.
Protein and muscle health
Body proteins are continually being broken down and synthesised. This process of protein turnover (about 300 g/day in adults) is many times higher than the amount of proteins consumed from the diet. This indicates that the building blocks of the proteins, the amino acids, are reutilised in protein metabolism. Yet, part of the amino acids is lost in the form of nitrogen compounds through urine, faeces, sweating and via the skin, hair and nails. The body needs to compensate for these losses throug
Do adults need calcium?
Calcium is the most common mineral in our bodies. There is scientific proof that we need sufficient amounts of calcium in our nutrition. This is relevant for every phase in life, both old and young. Calcium supports the build-up of bone mass with children and with adults the mineral contributes to the maintenance of bones, normal blood clotting and proper functioning of muscles and nerves.