Global targets and nutrition interventions to counter malnutrition
Malnutrition is a global issue in many low and middle income countries, with adolescent and pregnant women and young children being among the most vulnerable groups. In 2014, the decision-making body of World Health Organization (WHO) -World Health Assembly- formulated the ‘Global targets 2025.1 At the same time, a science-based intervention framework was developed and published by the leading Lancet Nutrition Interventions Review Group.2 This framework promotes a systematical life stage approac
Advances in the management of infant colic
Infant colic is a common condition characterized by excessive crying without any obvious cause in an otherwise healthy child. Colic usually presents within the first 3 months of life and, in severe cases, can disrupt feeding and prevent an infant from gaining weight.1 The underlying cause of colic is not well established.
Estimates of malnutrition
Stunted linear growth has become the main indicator of childhood undernutrition, because of its prevalence in nearly all low or middle income countries, and its important consequences for health and development. According to 2011 global estimates of the United Nations (UN) more than 165 million children under 5 years (26%) were stunted (HAZ=height-for-age Z score > -2), 100 million children (16%) were underweight (WAZ=weight-for-age Z score > -2) and around 52 million (8%) were wasted (WHZ=weigh
Challenges in managing gastrointestinal reflux in infants and children
All infants experience gastroesophageal reflux (GER) with the prevalence typically peaking at 4-5 months of age and resolving without intervention by 13-14 months of age.1 If an otherwise healthy infant (3 weeks–12 months of age) experiences regurgitation, with no retching, haematemesis (blood in vomit), apnoea (temporary stopping of breathing), more than twice per day for over 3 weeks, they may be diagnosed with functional infant regurgitation.
SEANUTS study design and methodology
The South East Asian Nutrition Survey (referred to as SEANUTS) is the largest and most extensive multi-centric nutrition and health study ever done in Southeast Asia. It was conducted by leading universities in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. This study investigated anthropometry, dietary intake, nutritional status, physical activity levels and cognition of 16,744 children between the ages of six months and twelve years, using a randomized multistage cluster design.
New developments in the treatment of constipation in childhood
In 2014, the European and North American Societies for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN) issued guidelines on the management of paediatric constipation using:
Nutritional status of children aged 0.5 to 12 years in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam: South East Asia Nutrition Survey…
Double burden of malnutrition is defined as the persistence of undernutrition and the rapid rise in overweight and obesity. The usual pattern of malnutrition was undernutrition being more prevalent in developing countries while obesity was a common occurrence in developed countries. However, with rapid urbanization, unlimited food access, and lifestyle changes, a trend towards increasing incidence of overweight and obesity has been observed in developing countries.1
Nourishing the Infant and Child: Aiming for Effect Beyond Growth
Early nutrition in utero and in childhood have direct and indirect effects on an infant’s brain growth, development and immunity, which in turn impact the child’s long-term cognitive performance and physical health. These effects are influenced by specific nutrients and the timing at which they are delivered during early life.
Dietary intake of children aged 0.5 to 12 years in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam: South East Asia Nutrition Survey…
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) refers to the daily intake level of a nutrient that is sufficient to meet the requirements of approximately 97 to 99% apparently healthy individuals in an age- and sex-specific population.1 In addition to anthropometric studies and biochemical analysis, determining a population’s food intake in relation to the RDA is an adjunct in interpreting nutritional status and determining a possible cause of malnutrition.
Promoting GI Tolerance through Appropriate Nutrition
Human breastmilk, with its unique combination of nutrients and other functionally active components, is the optimal nutrition for infants. When cow milk-based formulas are used to supplement infant feeding, it is important to note that the normal digestion and absorption of nutrients in these formulas involve interaction of the gastrointestinal tract with the proteins, carbohydrates (e.g., lactose), fats, prebiotics and probiotics found in each infant formula.